Chinese Medicine, Western Soul
The following is the text of an article by Henry McGrath, published in the European Journal of Oriental Medicine, the journal of the British Acupuncture Council
The Yellow Emperor says: “For all acupuncture to be thorough and effective, one must first cure the Soul”.1 This article is for those wish consciously to work at that level where appropriate.
At a recent seminar Bob Flaws said: “there is no metaphysical difference between Chinese Herbs and Western drugs”2. In other words, there is no difference beyond the physical: no difference in the effects of the two kinds of medicine on the Soul.
I think he was absolutely right: there is not necessarily any inherent metaphysical difference between the effects of herbs and drugs. Both drugs and herbs can be used to treat disease on a purely physical level, as indeed they often are. It is easy for us practitioners of Chinese Medicine to assume that we are treating “holistically”, but this is not necessarily the case.
This article argues that if we wish to treat at the level of the Soul, in other words metaphysically, both practitioner and patient must consciously be aware and involved in the process. We cannot just assume that our treatments are working on the level of the Soul because we are using herbs, or for that matter acupuncture. Similarly, “medical acupuncture” proves that it is perfectly possible to use acupuncture on a purely physical level.
Working at the level of the Soul is, of course, not for all patients, or even for all practitioners. Nor should it be. But many patients wish to go beyond merely getting rid of obvious signs of illness, and seek treatments that help them towards a fuller, richer life. For these people, true health is not defined merely as an absence of disease, but as a life of fulfilment, meaning and purpose. Chinese Medicine has the potential to help them towards this fuller model of health.
Losing The Way?
Many in the West are developing an ecological perspective, and Chinese Medicine can fit very well with this, if it chooses to. The Taoists saw illness as a sign that one is out of balance with The Way of Nature, a sign that one’s Soul is not aligned with The Way. Chinese Medicine has the potential to show us exactly how our illnesses are manifesting the imbalances of our Souls, and why, as a direct consequence of this, humanity is increasingly out of balance with the planet.
Or, alternatively, Chinese Medicine can help us collude with attitudes and lifestyles that are destroying the planet. “Collusion” is a well known phenomenon in psychotherapy, but many in our profession are unaware of the term. It describes a situation where the therapist makes the patient feel better in the short term, thereby allowing them to avoid the real causes of their illnesses. By merely getting rid of obvious symptoms, we risk taking away the head of steam that will drive true change. In other words, if we just get rid of our patients’ obvious signs of illness, they are much more likely to carry on as before. For example, maybe repeated headaches are showing us that we are working too hard, and not relaxing enough. Merely to get rid of the headaches, without helping the patient to understand why they may have occurred in the first place, encourages the patient to continue as before.
As practitioners we faced with a stark choice: we can either try just get rid of our patients’ illnesses and help them to remain out of harmony, or we can help them learn from their illnesses how to return to harmony. We can show our patients that their diseases are their teachers3.
But how do work consciously at the level of the Soul? First we must ask ourselves the question:
What is the Soul?
Most of you will be familiar with the Chinese model of the Soul: the Hun, Po, Yi, Zhi and Shen. While it is an interesting concept, it is not adequate for our purposes for several reasons:
• It will appear very obscure and superstitious to our patients.
• Each aspect of the Soul is very specific in its meaning.
• It does not capture the broad, open view of the Soul that I wish to develop.
• It requires belief in a certain metaphysical system.
• It does not allow for a Western understanding of the Soul
• There are many ways to see the Soul, and our understanding should not be limited by this particular conception. To grow the Soul we must grow our understanding of it.
So, this article attempts to create a new “model of the Soul” which can be used within the framework of Chinese Medicine.
Any discussion of the exact nature of Soul is obviously way beyond this article, and for present purposes I shall use a simple dictionary definition of the Soul that is broad, and that requires no metaphysical belief. It is “our innermost being or nature” 4.
My model of the Soul contains five aspects:
In order for us to be balanced individuals, living in harmony with those around us and with the planet, we must develop all aspects. Unlike some Five Elements systems, there is not just one Element that is “out of balance”, and causing all of our problems. This “reductionist” interpretation of Chinese Medicine puts us all into boxes in the same way that Western medicine does!
My model encourages us, and by extension our patients, to work towards an “ideal” Soul, rather than just to worry about “imbalance”. It is a forward looking model of growth and health, rather than a backward looking model of illness. It is a model of “individuation”, helping us to become our individual selves to the greatest possible degree. This way of working helps us to bring our latent powers to fruition in the real world.
I am of course aware of the Western “Four Elements” model, and could have tried to fit my model into this system. However, I feel this is not necessary, as the “Five Elements” system is universal enough to contain Western culture easily. Both Elemental systems are just models, and I don’t feel that we will lose any of our Western identity by using the Five Elements one, as it can comfortably represent the full range of human experience. As practitioners with many years experience of using the Five Elements model, it makes sense for us to continue with it.
So, how to fill this model out so it is suitable for Westerners? I propose a two – stage approach:
• A re-examination of the philosophical ideas behind Chinese Medicine, namely the “Taoists” and Confucius.
• A comparison of those ideas with similar ones from the Western cultural and spiritual tradition.
I believe this approach is necessary because, even if we could penetrate the Chinese Soul (which I think is impossible even for a Westerner who speaks fluent Chinese), it is not our home. As the great Buddhist teacher Thich Nat Hahn has shown in his book “Going Home”5, we can only find peace in our own Western Souls. Yes, we can study ideas from other traditions, and see what resonates with us. But we can only grow from our own roots.
We must not throw the Western Soul away and attempt to implant a Chinese one. Rather, we must build on the best of our own Western tradition. Yes, the West has made many mistakes, but this is all part of its learning process. Don’t lets throw out the baby (the Western Soul) with the bathwater (Western materialism)!
Eastern Soul/ Western Soul
Any serious comparison of Chinese and Western Souls is, again, well beyond the scope of this article. I apologise in advance that the following is simplistic: in this limited space I can do no more than sketch some of the differences between the Chinese and Western Souls. Of course, there is much of the “Chinese Soul” in Westerners, and vice versa, but still there are some important overall differences. And the picture is not static. In these exciting times of cultural cross fertilisation the boundaries are becoming ever more blurred in many ways. I must also stress that no Soul is “better” or “worse” than the other. I am a Westerner, but there is much I love, and have learnt from, both the Chinese way of life and Chinese philosophy (between which, incidentally, there is often a great difference). China and the West can learn much from each other, without attempting a bland synthesis: vive la difference! The following is a quick sketch of some of the differences between the Western and Chinese Souls:
• The Chinese tend to focus much more on the needs of society, whereas we tend to focus on the individual.
• The Chinese tend to be less expressive about personal problems and emotions than we do.
• The Chinese tend to follow Lao Tsu’s advice to “hide your light” 6, whereas we tend to follow Christ’s advice not to “hide your light under a bushel”.
• The Chinese tend not to criticise their Government and public institutions, whereas in the West it is something of a sport!
• The Chinese tend to defer to authority much more than we do, and tend to do what they are told unless there is a very good reason not to.
• The Chinese tend to accept on faith what they are taught, because they respect the teacher. We tend to want to work things out for ourselves.
• The Chinese tend to focus on the circular aspect of life (history repeating itself), whereas the West tends to think in terms of linearity and “progress”, of evolution.
The model of the Soul I am developing takes these differences into account to foster a deeper therapeutic relationship than is permitted by the mainstream “Chinese” style of working, where the Soul rarely comes into the equation (if you don’t believe me on this latter point, visit a Chinese Hospital!).
These differences could have a profound impact on the way “Chinese Medicine” develops in the West, as we Western practitioners can have very different relationships with our patients than is the case in China. In China, Western and Chinese Medicine tend to work alongside each other within an increasingly scientific, mechanistic, reductionist framework. In the West, we could go either one of two ways:
• We could try to integrate Chinese Medicine into our mainstream medical paradigm, by way of clinical trials and “medical acupuncture”.
• We could forge our own way of working which addresses issues of the Soul in terms of our own holistic traditions.
Of course there is room for both approaches in our pluralistic Western society, but this article attempts to work towards the latter.
“Returning to the Source is stillness, which is the way of nature”6.
“Better is a handful of quietness than two hands full of toil and a striving after wind”8.
It is hard enough to convey the flavour of one aspect of the Soul in such a short article, let alone all five aspects. So, I shall just outline Reflection for now.
Reflection is essential to a healthy human Soul. Without it, our lives will inevitably be “shallow”, that is, they will lack the depth of Water. Our lives will be focused on the froth and foam, rather than on the depths.
Reflection is necessary to ensure that we are living in accordance with “higher powers” or “higher truths”. It helps us find, then fulfil our purpose in life, rather than just killing time until death arrives. In other words, it helps us to live in accordance with “The Way”. When our lives lack reflection, we get caught up in a kind of neurotic busy-ness, designed to fill our lives up. This keeps us from seeing the deeper currents of life, and allows us to forget that we have lost touch with Water, the “source of 10,000 things”6.
“Remaining in touch with the Mother brings freedom from fear of death”6
Reflection helps us to maintain contact with the “mother”, the source of life. When we are in contact with the Mother, we have an inner sense of peace, and an outward calm. When we lose touch with “the mother”, we become unsure, even fearful: this is why the Kidneys are associated with Fear.
There is much Water symbolism in the Western tradition too. In many ways it can be interpreted in a similar fashion to the Taoist tradition, but as we shall see later there are important differences as well.
The Christian tradition of baptism is a very clear example of Water symbolism. It signifies plunging into our unconscious to connect with the “Higher Power”. It signifies the death of the old, narrow, egotistical person, and his rebirth as one living in accordance with the “Higher Power”, which is obviously God in Christianity. And we should not make the mistake of seeing baptism as only a ritual or a symbol: it is “the outward sign of an inward spiritual grace”9.
The story of Jonah can be interpreted in a similar same way: he tried to avoid God’s will that he should preach to the people of Nin’eveh, and was cast into a whale to give him an opportunity to reflect. Not only was he submerged into the sea of his own unconscious, but he went one stage deeper, connecting with the will of God himself. This gave him ample time to “reflect”, and when the whale spat him out he took up his task10.
The Exodus from Egypt holds similar symbolism: the Israelites have to pass through the Dead Sea to reach the “Promised Land”11, in other words they have to make a journey through the unconscious to reach “enlightenment”. By parting the waves God facilitates this inward journey.
“The Tao that can be named is not the Tao”6
The Taoist concept of living in accordance with The Way is very similar to the Christian idea of living according to the Will of God. Both acknowledge that there is a hidden power, and that we should subordinate our narrow, egotistical will to it. In other words, both say that that we should try to live by “higher truths”, rather than just doing whatever takes our fancy.
When we first try to live according to the Higher Power, we have consciously to tame our base desires, but when we have reached a higher level of development our actions will spontaneously reflect the Higher Power. This is true in both the Taoist tradition (Chuang Tsu particularly20), and in the Christian one, exemplified by St Augustine’s “Do what you will”21. One of the problems in our Western society is that we encourage spontaneity without wisdom, a recipe for egotism and disaster!
However, try as we might, we can never grasp the true nature of the Higher Power. One English Christian mystic classic tells us that we humans have to be surrounded by a kind of “Cloud of Unknowing”12, because the sight of the true light of God would blind us. There is also a tradition within Christianity and Judaism, still observed in certain quarters, that the full name of God should not be written down, as it is not his true name. Those who observe this tradition write the Hebrew word for God, Yahweh, as YHWH. Some Christians still write G_D for God.
These traditions both underline a deep reverence for the Higher Power, which can be cultivated by reflection. Lao Tsu tells us what will happen if we do not do this:
“When men lack a sense of awe there will be disaster”6
This insight gives a whole new perspective to the ecological issues facing mankind. Lao Tsu predicted that when we lose our reverence for creation we will be in trouble. For me, GM foods are one example of this. We have lost our reverence for “The Source”, so we think we can tinker with the building blocks of life itself, despite having no idea how it really works, or how things will turn out. Ironically, China is in the forefront of GM production, which threatens to affect the production of Chinese herbs. One could say that humanity is losing its “Collective Water”: a general lack of reflection has lead to a loss of reverence for the sacredness of life. Lao Tsu said “Life is sacred. You cannot improve it.”6
In the West we have the concept of “Gaia”, which was developed by the ancient Greeks (who were roughly contemporaries of Lao Tsu et al). Gaia can be understood as the Soul of planet Earth, a living organism that self regulates to provide a home for life. James Lovelock recently resurrected the idea in his book “The Ages of Gaia”, describing how our planet cleverly maintains temperature and gas concentrations within certain limits, shields us from radiation, and generally provides the perfect environment for us to thrive in. The chances of all the conditions necessary for life to exist on this planet are calculated at trillions to one against. In today’s scientific language, Gaia is a self – regulating homeostatic being14.
Unfortunately, because we have lost our sense of awe for life and the planet, we have come to take the Earth for granted for too long. Lovelock argues that our extreme neglect of our planet is in danger of pushing it past the point where it can maintain us within the limits we need to survive.
In the Christian tradition Man has the duty “to till and keep” the garden of Eden, and by extension the rest of the Earth15. However, the Bible tells how men fail in their duties, and bring disaster on themselves by “turning their backs on God”. The destruction of Sodom followed the failure of Abraham to find even ten righteous people in the city16. Revelation is the ultimate example of the dangers of man’s following his own ego instead of God, and predicts that humanity will end up destroying itself by ignoring the “Truth”17.
The bigger picture18
In Western astrology there is a cycle lasting about 24,000 years. It is composed of 12 parts, each representing one of the twelve signs of the Zodiac and lasting just over 2000 years. The cycle runs in the reverse order to the annual Zodiac cycle.
According to this tradition, Christ heralded the transition from Aries to Pisces. This is one reason why he is known as Icthus (Greek for Fish), why he was called the “Fisherman of men”, and why many Christians eat fish on Fridays! If Water symbolises the unconscious, fish symbolise being in touch with the unconscious.
Seen in this light, Christ heralded a period where humanity has been given a chance to reflect on its destiny. It is up to us whether we take it.
Pisces also symbolises death and rebirth, which is of course why Christ died and was reborn. In a similar way, by turning to Christ our narrow selfish selves die, and our larger, holistic, “true” selves are born. We are created in the image of God, and therefore have the potential to be move towards him and fulfil our true potential. This is the inner meaning of “born again”!
Ultimately, one could argue, all Water is the same. But it is also true that it flows in different streams. So far I have looked mostly at the similarities between Taoist and Western ideas on Water, but there are important differences too. These stem from the differences in the Chinese and Western Souls listed above. And these differences have implications if we are interested in working at the level of the Soul.
The Christian God is more “personal” than the “Tao that cannot be named”. He revealed himself many times through prophets, and takes a close interest in humanity. He is said to have created us in his own image, and this means we have certain individual, creative tasks to perform. The individual is important.
I am jumping ahead a little to Fire (Consummation), but the importance of each individual has many implications. For example, in the West we give more sympathy to the idea of the “personal path”. We believe in each individual living out her destiny, fulfilling her potential, doing her bit. This is much less true of the Taoists.
As we noted above, Lao Tsu recommended “hiding one’s light”, lest one gets into trouble. The story goes that he didn’t even want to write down his teachings, but was forced to do so by the gatekeeper before he was allowed to leave the city. Christians, on the other hand, are obliged to do the opposite, and “Proclaim the Truth!”. They Christians have therefore felt duty bound to try and convert others (some would argue a little too vigorously!)
So whereas it may or may not be appropriate for a Chinese to try and “fulfil himself” (it is not for me to make a judgement on this), it is certainly a legitimate aim for a Westerner (his “path” must be in accordance with the Higher Power of course). Indeed, it may cause him problems if he does not: if he does not “follow his path” his Soul may well feel unfulfilled, and he may become ill.
This all shows the necessity of the West developing its own model of the Soul. If we just use the ancient Chinese one, we may just tell our frustrated patient to forget about his artistic dreams and knuckle down to his job in the local call centre. We must recognise the legitimate aspirations of our own Western Souls, as long as they are linked in with the Higher Power, and not just an excuse for egotism.
And of course we are now living in an age where we cannot all just ride off into the wilderness like Lao Tsu, or sit in quiet contemplation. The world is facing major ecological problems, and I only have to walk down my local high street to see the suffering written on the faces of the growing numbers of prostitutes, pushers and other lost Souls. The social instability that this brings involves all of us, and nobody with a sense of responsibility can just walk away from it.
The Dalai Lama recently commented on some of the differences between the Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. He admired the strong urge in the West to intervene in the suffering of others, which he felt was not quite the case in the East. Don’t let’s lose this in a vain attempt at Eastern quietism!
How this manifests in Kidney pathologies
In our society we are constantly surrounded by noise and distractions: piped music, mobile ‘phones, traffic. Our idea of “rest” is being slumped in front of the T.V., which gives no room for reflection.
So what happens when we have a lack of stillness, a lack of true rest in our lives? We deplete the Kidney Yin.
Just like pushing the planet beyond its limits, if we push ourselves beyond our natural limits we deplete our Yin. It is like driving our cars for too long without oil: they will break down. Too much activity, either mental or physical, generates heat, which depletes Yin.
We saw above that “remaining in touch with the Mother brings freedom from fear of death”. In fact, reflection is very beneficial for all kinds of fears, phobias and anxieties. It is no accident that the Kidney Yin tonic herb Zhi Mu means “Knowing The Mother”: it roots the Yin and so calms an agitated mind.
As we know, when the Kidney Yin is deficient, all sorts of other pathologies arise. The Liver Yang rises, the heart gets over heated and agitated, the Yin of the lungs is depleted, to give but a few examples. As you know, the Kidney Yin is the root of all Yin in the body. So, reflection is very important!
If we feel that a patient’s condition is exacerbated by a lack of reflection, I think it is our duty to make them aware of this. Patients often say to me that acupuncture is their only chance to lie down in peace and quiet! I advise such patients to find twenty minutes a day just to sit or lie down with no noise. Not to try and “meditate” in order to achieve something, like “enlightenment” or a “higher spiritual state”. This is often just another attempt to “do” something, and anyway usually leads to frustration when people feel they are not achieving anything. Patients often say to me that they gave up meditating because they could not do it properly, or they could not stop the mind! This is missing the point completely: the point of meditation is to meditate, not to achieve anything. Meditation with a goal has been described as “Spiritual Materialism”19. No, for people who lack reflection it is best just to sit quietly and allow whatever comes to come. Thoughts can be treated like clouds drifting through the mind.
I treated a women, aged 45, who was suffering from chronic lower back pain. X rays had revealed osteo-arthritis. She also suffered from chronic fatigue. In terms of Chinese Medicine her Kidney Yang energy was deficient. Following several treatments the pain eased considerably, and she stopped coming (against my advice!) Several weeks later she returned, suffering from the same pain. She had become convinced that the pain was due to overwork: she said that her boss was very demanding, and that she therefore had to work very long hours. I carried on treating her, but the pain always returned soon after she stopped coming for treatment. I tried to explain that we were chasing the symptoms rather than the causes of her pain, but at that time she did not want to hear the message, and stopped coming again.
Some weeks later she returned, announcing that she had got a new job: all her troubles were over! However, before long she started to work long hours again: the new boss turned out to be just as demanding! I asked her whether all her bosses had been like this: of course they had! She had to change jobs every two or three years as she always got to a point where she could not cope with the workload. So I began to suspect that the number of hours she worked might have been due to a Soul issue, rather than being externally imposed. Was she a “driven” person? I asked her why she didn’t insist on leaving work at a reasonable hour. “Oh but they might sack me!” she replied. I pointed out that she was actually losing jobs faster than most people by working so hard! Nevertheless she was very fearful of unemployment, as she had had a very hard upbringing. She also said she would go mad sitting in the house all day doing nothing. It turned out that she didn’t have any spare time: again, I suspected this was due to Soul issues, not externally imposed!
Over time she was becoming ever clearer that overwork was contributing to her back pain, and beginning to suspect that perhaps she wasn’t being forced to work so hard: perhaps it was her choice. One day I asked her whether she had ever meditated, or just sat in silence for a few minutes. “I haven’t got time” she snapped. I said I was sure she could find five minutes per day to just sit quietly if she was serious about improving her back. She said she had tried meditation before but “couldn’t do it”. She had given up in frustration, not achieving the state of calm her teacher kept referring to. I said there was nothing to do: just try sitting quietly in a chair for five minutes and just be. She reluctantly agreed to try.
The first thing she realised by sitting quietly was that she had no stillness in her life. It felt very strange to do nothing! Feelings of guilt arose that she was wasting time. She began to see that it was her guilt that was motivating her to work so hard. Eventually she began to see very clearly that she was choosing to work so hard: she could now choose whether to continue doing so! She saw that she could now take more responsibility for her pain: if her attitudes were contributing to it, she could do something about it.
After more time she began to feel more comfortable just being with her fears: fear of being poor, of being lonely. She realised that her fears were not helping her current position at all, indeed they were harming her career. What may have been a useful attitude in the past (to work hard and build some financial security) was now holding her back.
With time the back pain became less intense: whenever it troubled her she would just sit for longer “doing nothing”. She had begun to work more sensible hours and, unsurprisingly, felt less tired!
* * *
Amongst patients with Kidney pathologies, I have found that those who take on board the lessons of Reflection tend to do the best.
So, there is not necessarily any metaphysical difference between “Chinese Medicine” and “Western Medicine”. If we want such a difference, we have to work for it. If we want to treat the Soul, we have to do so in the full consciousness of ourselves and of our patients.
The case history shows how the material I am working with can be used in practice in a very straightforward way. Use of the material promotes:
• Conscious inclusion of the Soul in the healing process, where appropriate.
• Acknowledgement that there may be differences between Western and Chinese Souls, so it is not always appropriate just to slavishly follow “Taoist” ideas.
• Patients taking more responsibility for their own healing process, where they are able and willing to do so.
• A deeper understanding, by patients and practitioners alike, of the true roots of some illnesses in the Soul (of course, not all illness is necessarily rooted in the Soul by any means).
• An acceptance that medicine has its limits, and that ultimately only The Great Maker is in full control of illness!
This way of working gives much greater patient satisfaction, and is often able to get to the root of “intractable” illnesses where other approaches have failed. And, perhaps just as important, where the effects of treatment are limited, the patient generally feels more at ease and accepting of her illness, because she understands it in its wider context. Reflection generates acceptance.
Chuang Tsu sums up this wisdom beautifully in his story about a sick man who celebrated his deformities and weakness, even heralding their benefits. If we reflect enough on the depths of life, we can even laugh at our illness, and align it with The Way:
“Great is The Maker” said the sick one,
“Who has made me as I am!
My guts are over my head;
Upon my navel I rest my cheek;
My shoulders stand out
Beyond my neck;
My crown is an ulcer
Surveying the sky;
My body is in chaos
But my mind is in order.”
He dragged himself to the well,
Saw his reflection, and declared:
“What a mess He has made of me!”
His friend asked:
“Are you discouraged?”
“Not at all! Why should I be?
If He takes me apart
And makes a rooster
Of my left shoulder
I shall announce the dawn.
If He makes a crossbow
Of my right shoulder
I shall procure roast duck.
If my buttocks turn into wheels
And if my spirit is a horse
I will hitch myself up and ride around
In my own wagon!”20
1. Veith, Ilza (1972). The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine. London: University of California Press
2. Bob Flaws Seminar, 29 June 2003, Regents College, London.
3. Dethlefson, Thorwald & Dahlke, Rudiger (1991). The Healing Power of Illness. Shaftesbury: Element.
4. Geddie, William (1970). Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers
5. Thich Nat Hahn (1999). Going Home: Jesus and Buddha as Brothers. New York: Riverhead Books.
6. English, Jane & Gia Fu Feng (1973). Lao Tsu: Tao Te Ching (trans.). Hampshire: Gower
8. The British and Foreign Bible Society (1967). The Holy Bible, Collins. Ecclesiastes 4.6
9. Church of England Catechism
10. The British and Foreign Bible Society (1967). The Holy Bible, Collins. Book of Jonah
11. The British and Foreign Bible Society (1967). The Holy Bible, Collins. Book of Exodus
12. Backhouse, H (1985) The Cloud of Unknowing (trans & ed.). Hodder and Stoughton
14. Lovelock, James (1988): The Ages of Gaia. Oxford University Press.
15. The British and Foreign Bible Society (1967). The Holy Bible, Collins. Book of Genesis
16. The British and Foreign Bible Society (1967). The Holy Bible, Collins. Book of Genesis
17. The British and Foreign Bible Society (1967). The Holy Bible, Collins. Book of Revelation
18. Stein, Murray (1999). Jung on Christianity (ed.). Princeton University Press.
19. Trungpa, C: Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism
20. Merton, Thomas (1965): The Way of Chuang Tsu. New York: New Directions
21. Everyman’s Library (1907). St Augustine: The Confessions (trans. & ed.). London: Everymans.